Hybrid market

// Опубликовано: 01.05.2020 автор: Mazujora

hybrid market

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The result: Tessco enjoys significantly lower costs than most of its competitors, which continue to rely on traditional methods such as direct sales. Despite the proliferation of marketing methods, few companies pay sufficient attention to the design of marketing systems or seek to manage them in ways that optimize coverage and costs. These decisions are usually made separately and independently—and often swiftly as well.

As a consequence, companies can find themselves stumbling over their hastily constructed, overlapping hybrid system. Consider how an ill-conceived and mismanaged hybrid system contributed to the hostile take-over of Barry Wright Corporation. Many factors made the Massachusetts-based company vulnerable, but a principal cause of its troubles was the performance of a major subsidiary, Wright Line, Inc.

A leading supplier of accessories used to store, protect, and provide access to computer tapes, diskettes, and other media, Wright Line was struggling vainly to halt the erosion of its market position. Previously, the company had sold its products exclusively through a direct sales force. After analyzing these trends, Wright Line supplemented its direct sales force with additional marketing channels and communications methods.

Signs of trouble appeared almost immediately. By , the reorganization had yielded declining growth rates, diminishing market share, and plummeting profits. Inside the company, strife over account ownership was rampant, and turnover among the direct sales reps reached an all-time high. By the time new leadership tried to untangle the mess, it was already too late. The Barry Wright story is an extreme example of an increasingly evident problem.

Rather than designing an ideal distribution strategy, companies tend to add channels and methods incrementally in the quest to extend market coverage or cut selling costs. Unfortunately, such actions typically result in conflict and morale problems inside the marketing organization and confusion and anger among distributors, dealers, and customers on the outside. At the heart of the problem of designing and managing hybrid systems is the fundamental question of what mix of channels or communication methods can best accomplish the assortment of tasks required to identify, sell, and manage customers.

The trick to designing and managing hybrid systems is to disaggregate demand-generation tasks both within and across a marketing system—recognizing that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. A map of tasks and channels—what we call a hybrid grid—can help managers make sense of their hybrid system see Exhibit 1. A hybrid grid, for example, can be used to illustrate graphically what happened at Wright Line and what might have happened differently.

Along the top are basic marketing tasks required to obtain and maintain customers: generation of leads; qualification of these leads; presales activities, such as sales calls to woo specific customers; closing the sale; provision of postsales service; and ongoing management of the account. Along the side of the grid are the various marketing channels and methods used to reach customers, ranging from elaborate direct to elaborate indirect options.

The shaded areas represent one possible approach through a direct channel: direct mail to generate leads, telemarketing to qualify leads and manage presales and postsales activities, and a direct sales force to close deals and manage the account on an ongoing basis. The hybrid grid can be a useful diagnostic tool to identify points of overlap and conflict in a marketing system.

It can also aid in the design of a new marketing system tailored to the needs of specific customers. As a marketing map, the grid depicts the situation at a particular moment and needs to be updated as changes occur. Before its reorganization, Wright Line used direct sales for all demand-generation tasks and all customers see Exhibit 2. When it reorganized in , Wright Line wanted the direct sales force unit 1 to perform all demand-generation tasks for big customers; the new direct response unit unit 2 to concentrate exclusively on midsize customers using catalogs and telemarketing ; and the new third party and resale unit unit 3 to market to small customers and nonusers through indirect channels see Exhibit 3.

Instead, Wright Line wound up with a marketing system that was neither what it wanted nor what it needed see Exhibit 4. The three marketing units were performing all of the demand-generation tasks for many different types of customers. Units 1 and 2 bickered constantly over account ownership. To avoid losing accounts, for example, some sales reps improperly classified accounts to hide them from the direct response marketing division.

Those who complied were frustrated by guidelines that prohibited them from calling on smaller and midsize accounts in their territories and growing with them. The activities of unit 3 added fuel to the fire. Among major customers, purchasing managers who read catalogs and received visits from the sales reps of office supply vendors found that Wright Line products were available at a substantial discount off the direct sales price.

But this approach incorrectly assumes that each channel must perform and control all demand-generation tasks. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. In addition, the company assumed that certain channels could best serve all the needs of certain customer segments.

Hence, units 1, 2, and 3 were aligned with big, midsize, and small customers. The process of aligning high-cost channels—that is, the direct sales force—with big customers and low-cost channels with small customers is very logical, if that is the way customers buy.

The attempt to use a single channel to reach a single customer group resulted in severe channel conflicts, along with customer confusion. The design of an effective hybrid system depends not only on a thorough understanding of channel costs but also on a thorough understanding of buying behavior. The design of an effective hybrid system requires balancing the natural tension between minimizing costs and maximizing customer satisfaction. In focusing its costliest marketing resources on the targets with the highest potential payoff and devoting less expensive resources to less promising accounts, it ignored the buying behavior of its customers.

Its hybrid system was intended to lower costs and increase coverage. Instead, Wright Line lost control of both its channels and its customers. The hybrid grid illustrates how Wright Line might have successfully designed and managed its hybrid system see Exhibit 5.

The company could have used direct mail and response cards to generate leads among potential customers of all sizes and to perform most other tasks for small accounts. It could have used telemarketing to qualify leads among big and midsize prospects and determine approximate order size.

It could have routed qualified prospects interested in buying a certain amount of equipment to direct sales reps. Qualified prospects that turn out to be current national accounts would be turned over to the appropriate national account managers.

To mid-size customers, it could have made phone calls to close sales and handle accounts; a direct sales rep or a national account manager could have performed these tasks for larger customers. For all customers, telemarketing could have been used for postsales tasks like reordering. This version assigns demand-generation tasks to various channels, balancing both cost and customer buying behavior.

But this approach avoids using indirect channels, thereby allowing the company to maintain broad coverage without sacrificing control of pricing and product policy. Of course, indirect channels are appropriate and necessary in many situations. By establishing boundaries around genuine segments and building bridges across tasks, Wright Line might have gained the advantages of expanded market coverage and cost-effective marketing management without losing control of its marketing system and its customers.

Conflict is an inevitable part of every hybrid system. When a company adds a channel or substitutes a new communication method within a channel, existing stakeholders—sales reps, distributors, telemarketers—invariably resist. And why not: each faces a potential loss of revenue as well as competition for ownership of customers.

In seeking to build and manage a hybrid system, therefore, companies must recognize and communicate the existence of conflict as the first and most important step. The next step is to assess the magnitude of the conflict, asking some simple but penetrating questions: How much revenue does the company have in conflict? Revenue is in conflict whenever two or more channels simultaneously attempt to sell the same product to the same customer.

Where is this conflict? How do channels and customers react to it? How much management time is devoted to dealing with the conflict? The answers to these questions will vary by industry and by company, but some generalizations are possible. Clearly, a company with no revenue in conflict may be sacrificing coverage, failing to attract new customers by focusing too narrowly on a particular segment. Indeed, a certain amount of conflict in a hybrid marketing system is not only inevitable but also healthy.

On the other hand, as the Wright Line story illustrates, conflict that is pervasive across channels is debilitating and potentially destructive. Of course, the concept of having revenue in conflict is alien to many CEOs and senior managers, particularly those who are accustomed to using only a single channel.

They should seek a point of balance where conflict is neither too little nor too much. When phone calls and letters become angry, or when a significant portion of management time is absorbed in mediating internal disputes or dealing with customer complaints, warning bells should go off.

After they determine the amount and location of conflict, managers can establish clear and communicable boundaries and specific and enforceable guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Most companies observe some natural boundaries in the marketplace—areas defined by the interaction between buyer behavior and channel costs. Typically, companies target the largest and most profitable customers for some form of direct personal selling and serve smaller, less profitable accounts through less expensive methods.

The problems arise with those customers residing somewhere in the middle: mid-size accounts or markets with fuzzy boundaries, such as large national accounts that use a combination of centralized and decentralized purchasing practices that vary by product, location, or order size. Because no single method is clearly superior or appropriate, several may compete with each other—an example of a situation where clear boundaries will not work.

Boundaries between classes of customers are frequently couched in terms of sales, but effective boundary design involves much more than spelling out who makes which sale. Boundary mechanisms that help achieve this goal are generally based on customer characteristics, geography, and products. Customer Characteristics. Customer size is a familiar boundary criterion. For larger institutions, the manufacturer should sell through its direct sales force or some combination of that group and a third-party software supplier.

Order size provides another standard for drawing boundaries. A leading maker of PCs, for example, specifies that orders for more than 25 units must go through its direct sales force and orders of less than 5 units through independent dealers.

Customers can also be classified by decision-making process or decision-making unit. A manufacturer of specialty and commodity chemicals uses a direct sales force to sell specialty chemicals because the purchasing process for these products is complex and requires several engineers to develop specifications and participate in supplier selection. Hence, commodity chemicals are handled by distributors.

Finally, customers can be categorized by industry, particularly when there are genuine differences both in the product, price, and service package and in the expertise demanded of salespeople. The paper industry is a good example of differences in end use or applications.

A different channel serves each of the four major end-use groups—newsprint, magazines, office products, and business forms. Geographic Boundaries. Bounding by geography is clear and easy to enforce. The company has little difficulty preventing major conflict except in global accounts because the channels are physically separated. Many companies serve large, urban markets through some form of direct sales and use distributors or reps to cover less densely populated areas.

Product Boundaries. Xerox used product boundaries when it entered the personal copier market. It sells midrange and high-end machines through a combination of direct sales and dealer distribution; it sells low-end machines exclusively through retail channels. Electronics and appliance stores, mass merchants, department stores, and an American Express direct mail program are all sources of Xerox personal copiers. The company has tried to avoid excessive conflict among these different retail channels by producing distinct models for each.

The basic model personal copier was designed in three different versions so retailers would not compete with one another over an identical product. Boundary mechanisms will help contain and control conflict when it arises, but they do not—and should not—eliminate it. S will witness major growth as the research and development in the region have made way for significant uptakes in infrastructure, costs, and product innovation.

In April President Biden announced that he wants 50 percent of all new cars sold in the United States in to be an all-electric, plug-in hybrid, or hydrogen-powered. In addition to this, he also announced that he will sign an executive order that tasks the Environmental Protection Agency EPA and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA to develop aggressive long-term rules to support his target, ones that include medium and heavy-duty vehicles as well.

Stuck in a neck-to-neck competition with other brands? Weight reduction and recyclability are factors that are gaining traction in the automotive industry. Car Oil Filter Industry Report Scope — The luxury passenger cars segment by far has the highest market share compared to all other segments. The compact passenger cars segment is next in line from a growth rate point of view, with a medium market share on a global basis. Yet, it will register a loss in BPS by end.

The luxury passenger cars segment is poised to enjoy a higher BPS than any other passenger cars segment over the coming years. What is the Demand Outlook for U. Automotive Towbars? Deployment of new technologies and growing demand for unpowered trailers and caravans will likely strengthen market growth over the coming years. About Us: Market research and consulting agency with a difference!

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's general notability guideline. Please help to demonstrate the notability of the topic by citing reliable secondary sources that are independent of the topic and provide significant coverage of it beyond a mere trivial mention. If notability cannot be shown, the article is likely to be merged , redirected , or deleted.

Retrieved Archived from the original on Hidden categories: Articles with topics of unclear notability from February All articles with topics of unclear notability All stub articles. Namespaces Article Talk. In other instances, clients may simply trust in the experience of floor brokers to spread out their trade executions over time in order to avoid affecting the price of the security while the trade is being executed. For instance, if an investor wishes to buy a large quantity of shares in a thinly-traded stock, placing the entire purchase through a single order might cause the price to jump before all the shares can be purchased—thereby increasing the total cost of the transaction.

A floor broker may be trusted to carefully monitor this transaction and gradually place the purchase orders so as to minimize their total cost. Retail investors , on the other hand, often have no need or capacity to rely on floor brokers.

Because of their small transaction sizes, these investors will seldom be concerned with affecting the market price of the securities they buy. The NYSE, one of the world's oldest and most prominent stock exchanges, operated for most of its history using human trade brokers on its physical trading floor.

In Jan. Although these stocks could still be traded by brokers on the trading floor, clients now have the choice of opting for electronic executions. In practice, the vast majority of market participants place trades electronically today, with human brokers mainly representing large institutional clients. Indeed, many exchanges throughout the world have now eliminated their physical trading floors entirely, citing the increased efficiency of electronic trading.

Securities and Exchange Commission. Stock Markets. Trading Basic Education. Career Advice. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Investing Brokers. What Is a Hybrid Market? Key Takeaways A hybrid market is an exchange that offers both human floor trading and electronic trade execution. Advantages of Electronic Trades The key advantage to electronic trades is speed—they take less than one second to execute, while the average floor broker trade typically takes about nine seconds.

Article Sources. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts.

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